Abel51's blog

By Abel51, history, 3 months ago, In English


The congruence equation is one of the fundamental concepts in number theory:

Let $$$m$$$ be a given positive integer, and let $$$a$$$ and $$$b$$$ be integers. If $$$m\mid(a−b)$$$, then $$$a$$$ is congruent to $$$b$$$ modulo $$$m$$$, denoted as $$$a\equiv b\pmod m$$$ or $$$a\equiv b(m)$$$.

Other forms of expressing congruence include:

  • $$$a=b+km$$$
  • $$$a$$$ and $$$b$$$ have the same remainder when divided by $$$m$$$

Properties of congruence equations:

  • If $$$a_1\equiv b_1\pmod m$$$ and $$$a_2\equiv b_2 \pmod m$$$, then $$$a_1 + b_1 \equiv a_2 + b_2 \pmod m$$$
  • If $$$a\equiv b \pmod m$$$, then $$$a\equiv b + km\pmod m$$$, where $$$k$$$ is an integer
  • If $$$a_1\equiv b_1 \pmod m$$$ and $$$a_2\equiv b_2 \pmod m$$$, then $$$a_1 b_1\equiv a_2 b_2 \pmod m$$$

Finding the smallest positive integer solution for the congruence equation $$$ax \equiv 1 \pmod b$$$ involves transforming the equation into $$$ax+by=1$$$ and using the Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EXGCD) to solve it.


The fundamental equation is to find $$$ax+by=1$$$, for instance, $$$ 8x+3y=1 $$$.

A step-by-step breakdown is performed to arrive at a solution:

  • If $$$a < b$$$ in the equation $$$ax + by = 1$$$, no modifications are needed.
  • When $$$a$$$ and $$$b$$$ are not coprime in the equation $$$ax + by = 1$$$, adjustments are necessary.
  • For an equation in the form $$$ax + by = c$$$, the algorithm needs to be adjusted by dividing $$$a$$$, $$$b$$$, and $$$c$$$ by their greatest common divisor ($$$\gcd$$$) to yield a coprime equation. The final result using EXGCD yields $$$x=\frac{c}{\gcd(a,b)}$$$ and $$$y=0$$$.
  • To find specific solutions or multiple solutions, adjustments are made to ensure $$$x$$$ is a positive minimum. Techniques like % operations or loops are employed to handle these cases.

Multiplicative Inverse (Modular Inverse)

Addition and multiplication operations are modular-friendly, but division isn't. Multiplicative inverse, denoted as $$$b^{-1}$$$ with respect to modulo $$$p$$$ (where $$$p$$$ is a prime number), satisfies the equation $$$(b\times b^{-1}) \pmod p = 1$$$. The range of $$$b^{-1}$$$ is $$$[0,p-1]$$$.

  • Fermat's Little Theorem states that if $$$p$$$ is a prime number and integer $$$a$$$ is not a multiple of $$$p$$$, then $$$a^{p-1}\pmod p=1$$$.
  • For a prime $$$p$$$, the modular inverse of $$$a$$$ is $$$a^{p-2}$$$, often computed using fast exponentiation techniques.
  • If $$$p$$$ is not prime, the EXGCD method is employed to solve $$$b\times b^{-1} \equiv 1 \pmod p$$$, provided $$$b$$$ and $$$p$$$ are coprime. If they aren't, the inverse doesn't exist.
  • Linear preprocessing from $$$1$$$ to $$$p-1$$$ can be utilized to compute inverses efficiently by using $$$a=p \text{ mod } i$$$ and $$$b=\frac{p}{i}$$$.

Full text and comments »

  • Vote: I like it
  • +9
  • Vote: I do not like it

By Abel51, history, 4 months ago, In English

NOI Gold Coach Wang_Xiaoguang taught me last weekend.

The $$$\text{Miller Rabin}$$$ algorithm is a randomization algorithm used to test whether an integer is a prime. It is based on Fermat's small theorem and quadratic detection theorem, and determines whether an integer may be a prime number through multiple random tests. The basic idea of the algorithm is to perform a series of randomness proofs, and if an integer passes these tests, it is likely to be a prime number. If an integer fails any of these tests, then it is definitely not a prime number.

The following are the basic steps of the $$$\text {Miller Rabin} $$$ algorithm: 1. Select the integer $$$n$$$ to be tested: First, select an integer $$$n$$$ greater than $$$1$$$ to determine if it is a prime number.

  1. Decomposing $$$n-1$$$ into $$$2^t\times u$$$: Calculate the prime factorization of $$$n-1$$$, where $$$u$$$ is an odd number and $$$t$$$ is a non negative integer, representing the number of factors $$$2$$$.

  2. Select Random Evidence Number $$$a$$$: Randomly select an integer $$$a$$$ from the interval $$$[2,n-2]$$$.

  3. Calculate $$$v=a^u \mod n$$$: Calculate the modulus of $$$n$$$ to the power of $$$u$$$ of $$$a$$$, and obtain $$$v$$$.

  4. Check if $$$v$$$ is equal to $$$1$$$:

  • If $$$v=1$$$, then continue with the next round of testing and choose a new random evidence number of $$$a$$$.

  • If $$$v$$$ is not equal to $$$1$$$, go to the next step.

  1. Repeat square detection $t $times:
  • Perform the $$$t$$$ sub square operation on $$$v(v=v ^ 2\mod n)$$$ while checking if $$$v$$$ is equal to $$$n-1$$$.

  • If $$$v=n-1$$$, continue with the next round of testing and select a new random evidence number of $$$a$$$.

  • If $$$v$$$ is not equal to $$$n-1$$$, continue the square operation and check up to a maximum of $$$t-1$$$ times.

  1. Check the final result:
  • If $$$v$$$ is still not equal to $$$n-1$$$ after $$$t$$$ squared detection, then $$$n$$$ is considered not a prime number and can be determined to be a composite number.

  • If $$$v$$$ equals $$$n-1$$$ after $$$t$$$ tests, then $$$n$$$ may be a prime number and continue with the next round of testing.

  1. Repeat multiple tests: Repeat the above steps and select different random evidence numbers $$$a$$$ for testing. Usually, repeated testing multiple times can improve the accuracy of the algorithm.

Summary: The reliability of the $$$\text{Miller Rabin}$$$ algorithm depends on the selection of iteration times and random evidence numbers. Usually, conducting multiple tests (such as $$$15$$$ or more) and selecting a random number of evidence can make the algorithm highly reliable in practice, but it is still a random algorithm. Therefore, although it can quickly exclude most composite numbers, it cannot provide absolute proof.


import random
def millerRabin(n):
    if n<3 or n%2==0:
        return n==2
    while u%2==0:
    for i in range(test_time):
        if v==1:
        while s<t:
            if v==n-1:
        if s==t:
            return False
    return True
for i in range(t):
    if y==True:
    if y==False:

Full text and comments »

  • Vote: I like it
  • +17
  • Vote: I do not like it