Chiefash's blog

By Chiefash, history, 3 months ago, In English

I was trying to solve problem C in Educational Codeforces Round 159 (Rated for Div. 2).

Here I just wanted to check if the value i is not present in the array. I tried using three things 1. I created an unordered_set of all elements in the array and used !s.count(i) to check if the value is present or not? 2. I created an unordered_map of all elements in the array and used mp[i] == 0 to check if the value is present or not 3. Finally I used lower_bound function on the array to check if the value is present or not.

I got TLE on first two but accepted in third. Can someone please explain why is this happening. I don't want to make the same mistake again in the contest.

I am adding images for all examples.

image1 image2 image3

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3 months ago, # |
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I believe this blog should be helpful here.
Here is your original code and here is code with little modification (added custom_hash in unordered_map)

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3 months ago, # |
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Here, the lower_bound method has a complexity of $$$O(\log N)$$$; unordered map and set have an amortized complexity of $$$O(1)$$$, but they can be blown up to $$$O(N)$$$ with hack tests.

Lower_bound is consistently fast (enough so it gives you AC), but the other 2 aren't unless you apply safe hash as mentioned above.

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    3 months ago, # ^ |
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    This happens when there is a lot of collisions of the hashes? There is no way to be sure about it being O(1)?

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      3 months ago, # ^ |
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      Apparently, no. But by applying safe hash you can significantly reduce the number of collisions and speed up the runtime

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3 months ago, # |
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Since all elements distinct just use set or multiset(the best stl ds in the world)

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    3 months ago, # ^ |
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    When can I be sure to use unordered_set in general to achieve O(1).

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      3 months ago, # ^ |
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      In real life – when you know that the data that you put in the map/set can't be such that map/set blow up

      In competitive programming – generally when there's no hacks available, because problemsetters usually don't try to blow up hashes

      At Codeforces – basically never (because of hacks) unless you use custom hash function