Codeforces Round 676 (Div. 2) |
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Finished |

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bitmasks

greedy

math

*800

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A. XORwice

time limit per test

1 secondmemory limit per test

256 megabytesinput

standard inputoutput

standard outputIn order to celebrate Twice's 5th anniversary, Tzuyu and Sana decided to play a game.

Tzuyu gave Sana two integers $$$a$$$ and $$$b$$$ and a really important quest.

In order to complete the quest, Sana has to output the smallest possible value of ($$$a \oplus x$$$) + ($$$b \oplus x$$$) for any given $$$x$$$, where $$$\oplus$$$ denotes the bitwise XOR operation.

Input

Each test contains multiple test cases. The first line contains the number of test cases $$$t$$$ ($$$1 \le t \le 10^{4}$$$). Description of the test cases follows.

The only line of each test case contains two integers $$$a$$$ and $$$b$$$ ($$$1 \le a, b \le 10^{9}$$$).

Output

For each testcase, output the smallest possible value of the given expression.

Example

Input

6 6 12 4 9 59 832 28 14 4925 2912 1 1

Output

10 13 891 18 6237 0

Note

For the first test case Sana can choose $$$x=4$$$ and the value will be ($$$6 \oplus 4$$$) + ($$$12 \oplus 4$$$) = $$$2 + 8$$$ = $$$10$$$. It can be shown that this is the smallest possible value.

Codeforces (c) Copyright 2010-2024 Mike Mirzayanov

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