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Division-less Euclid's algorithm

Revision en1, by orz, 2024-01-02 01:06:03

Usually Euclid's algorithm, which computes $$$\gcd(a, b)$$$, is implemented as follows:

while b != 0:
  a %= b
  swap(a, b)
return a

Or, in recursive fashion,

if b == 0:
  return a
  return gcd(b % a, b)

While it works in $$$\mathcal O(n)$$$ time (where $$$n$$$ is the maximum of binary lengths of $$$a$$$ and $$$b$$$ — that is, big-Theta of the length of the input), it uses quite an expensive operation of integer division. The fastest known procedure of integer division works in $$$\mathcal O(n \log n)$$$ time, so, if we take into account the time spent on arithmetic operations, the time complexity is $$$\mathcal O{\left(n^2 \log n\right)}$$$. But even if we don't, int64 division is still much slower than such operations as addition, subtraction and binary shifts.

If you didn't know there is an algorithm which doesn't need division at all!

def remove_trailing_zeros(a):
  return a >> count_trailing_zeros(a)

def gcd_of_odd_numbers(a, b):
  if a == b:
    return a
  if a < b:
    swap(a, b)
  return gcd_of_odd_numbers(b, remove_trailing_zeros(a - b))

def gcd(a, b)
  if a == 0:
    return b
  if b == 0:
    return a
  return gcd_of_odd_numbers(remove_trailing_zeros(a), remove_trailing_zeros(b)) << min(count_trailing_zeros(a), count_trailing_zeros(b))

The function count_trailing_zeros(a) finds the maximum $$$k$$$ such that $$$a$$$ is divisible by $$$2^k$$$. The function remove_trailing_zeros(a) divides $$$a$$$ by the maximum power of two that divides $$$a$$$. Both these functions can be easily implemented in $$$\mathcal O(n)$$$ time, if we take into account the complexity of arithmetic operations. gcd_of_odd_numbers(a, b) finds gcd of the two numbers $$$a$$$ and $$$b$$$, given they are both odd. Everything except the recursive call works in $$$\mathcal O(n)$$$ time. Note that the sum of binary lengths of numbers is decremented by at least one from call to call, so there will be only $$$\mathcal O(n)$$$ recursive calls. Therefore, gcd_of_odd_numbers(a, b) works in $$$\mathcal O{\left(n^2\right)}$$$ time. Finally, gcd(a, b) is also obvious to take $$$\mathcal O{\left(n^2\right)}$$$ time.

My question is: why does everyone use the implementation with divisions? Are there some hidden advantages? I didn't compare how much these two take with fixed-length integer types and arbitrary-precision integer types in practice. Did someone in community investigated this question? Did you know about division-less gcd implementation at all? Please let me know in the comments.

Tags gcd, euclidean algorithm


  Rev. Lang. By When Δ Comment
en1 English orz 2024-01-02 01:06:03 2547 Initial revision (published)